Modern linguistics places special emphasis on the interpretative function of the language. One of the universal interpretative meanings is that of necessity. Necessity as a general modal meaning includes more speciﬁ c meanings such as objective (ontological), deontic and subjective (epistemic) necessity. The article focuses on Russian adjectives with the meaning of necessity, particularly the meanings of ‘necessity / contingency’ or ‘obligation / absence of obligation’. At the ﬁ rst stage we considered the Russian adjective ‘neobkhodimy’ as a prototype for this category of units. This adjective can realize all the four types of the meaning of necessity. We analyzed its semantics, usage in diﬀ erent contexts, and the ways its meaning is described by explanatory and ideographic dictionaries. At the second stage, we considered this adjective in the light of its paradigmatic relations: synonymic, antonymic and derivational. Our analysis has shown that depending on their meanings, lexemes can be grouped into 8 synonymic chains. Adjective ‘neobkhodimy’ is dominant only in one type of meaning, that of ontological external necessity while in other chains the main semantic idea is more clearly conveyed by other lexemes, which enter into various synonymic, antonymic and derivational relationships. Four synonymic chains (with the dominants ‘neobkhodimy’ (necessary), ‘neizbezhny’ (inevitable), ‘obyazatelny’1 (obligatory), and ‘vynuzhdenny’ (forced)) express the meaning of ontological external necessity. Two synonymic chains (with the dominants ‘nuzhny’ (needed), ‘obyazatelny’2 (obligatory)) express the meaning of ontological internal necessity; lexemes ‘obyazatelny’3 and ‘obyazatelny’4 form synonymic chains with the meanings of deontic and epistemic necessity. The diﬀ erent ways of interpreting reality that exist in the mind of the speaker and are realized in the semantics of these adjectives are further emphasized through the grouping of lexemes derived from the words in the synonymic chain (entry words) and their antonymic correlations. Thus, adjectives can express diﬀ erent types of necessity and, therefore, diﬀ erent ways of interpreting reality, which is highlighted by the peculiarities of their usage, combinability and their paradigmatic relations. These data should be reﬂ ected in the representation of the meaning of necessity in ideographic dictionaries.
|Translated title of the contribution||THE INTERPRETATIVE MEANING OF NECESSITY IN THE SEMANTICS OF RUSSIAN ADJECTIVES ('NEOBKHODIMY' / IMPORTANT, 'OBYAZATELNY' / IMPERATIVE, 'NUZHNY' / NECESSARY, 'NEPREMENNY' (MANDATORY))|
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||Вестник Московского университета. Серия 9: Филология|
|Publication status||Published - 2020|
- 16.00.00 LINGUISTICS
Level of Research Output
- VAK List