With the increasing contacts at the literary and cultural levels between China and other countries and with the growing interest in the Chinese language and culture, there is a need for quality translations of literary text from Chinese into other languages. Due to the differences in languages, mentalities and national characteristics of different countries, pragmatic translations of word-realities present special difficulties for literary translation. The object of study of this work is pragmatic adaptation in the translation. The subject of our study is the pragmatic techniques and strategies used in transmitting Chinese realities in the translation of Mo Yan’s story “The White Dog and the Swing”. The theoretical materials for our study were the story “White Dog and the Swing”, its translations in Russian and in English, linguistic works of translation theory, linguistic dictionaries and other articles related to our study. The work consists of introduction, 2 chapters, conclusions on chapters, conclusion, list of references and applications. The first chapter is devoted to the basic theory of this study, more precisely, the presentation of the theory of famous linguists about pragmatic adaptation, adequacy and literary translation, clarification of the concepts of definition and classification of pragmatic adaptation, adequacy of translation and the specifics of literary translation. In chapter 2, we study the techniques and strategies of pragmatic adaptation to achieve adequacy in translating Chinese realities in the story. First, we introduce the originality of the author of this story and the backgrounds of two translators. Then we define the concepts of realities and describe the classifications of Chinese realities in this story. Then we analyze rich translation examples in aspects of different realities, and in the end we compare the strategies used by translators. In conclusion, the main results of the work are summarized. The appendices present a summary of errors in the translations and a comparison table of the Chinese-English-Russian translation of Chinese realities. In general, the paper concretizes the concepts of pragmatic adaptation used by translators to achieve adequacy in translating Mo Yan’s story “The White Dog on a Swing”, and describes pragmatic techniques and strategies for conveying realities in literary translation, which gives us the opportunity to delve into Chinese literature and culture.