The results of studies of an autodyne transceiver (AT) for advanced radar sensing systems of the atmosphere are presented. A mathematical model of the APP has been developed, presented in the form of an oscillator with a single-circuit oscillatory system under the influence of a request signal from the radar. The analysis of the dynamics of signal reception in the beat mode, when the frequency of the received signal is outside the synchronization band, as well as in the capture mode, when the frequency of the request signal falls into the synchronization band of the AT. The noise and energy parameters and characteristics of the microwave generators used as an AT are investigated. Calculations of dynamic, noise and energy parameters and characteristics of the AT are performed depending on the choice of the type of conductivity characteristic of the active element and the position of the working point on it, as well as on the conditions of connection of the AT with the load. The experimental studies of the AT were carried out on the example of a serial transistor microwave module of the MRS-3MK radiosonde at a frequency of 1680 MHz. The description of the structural scheme of the AT for an aerological radiosonde operating in the beating mode is given. It is shown that the sensitivity of the AT to the request signal is determined by fluctuations in the amplitude of the microwave module and the bandwidth of the intermediate frequency amplifier. It is established that the sensitivity of the AT is minus 110...120 dB/W, for measuring the inclined range of 250...300 km is enough to have a radar transmitter with a pulse power of 50...100 W, while its average power corresponds to 0.05...0.1 W.