The paper describes preliminary results of investigation in 2012 at the Et-to I settlement (Tyumen region, Yamal-Nenets autonomic district), the only known early Neolithic settlement outside of the lower Ob river basin. The site is located at the foot of the Uvyr-Pai Hill - remains of glacial Pleistocene plain, in the middle of the tundra, away from sources of water. In the southern part of the settlement, the semi-pit dwelling No 5 with rectangular pit, 6.4 x 3.5 m in size and a depth of 0.9-1.0 m was excavated. The pit is divided into two chambers by earthen partition wide of 1 m and a height of 0.5 m from the floor. Grooves for base of wooden panels around the perimeter of the chambers at their bottom were traced. Entrance in the form of in-depth corridor ran off from the partition. Not far from the dwelling a storage bean-shaped pit with vertical walls and rounded bottom (sizes 2 x 3 m, depth 1.5 m) and a knapping ground were located. Pottery from the dwelling presents fragments of 4 egg-shaped vessels with comb pattern. Stone assemblage found inside and around the dwelling is related mainly to primary processing of raw material: pebbles with flake negatives, chipped pebbles, debitage and few cores. Bipolar technique and direct flaking of pebbles of siliceous rocks, quartzite and quartz were in use. Implements include some retouched flakes and worn pieces with natural edges. The assemblage of dwelling 5 is identical to those of previously studied dwellings No 3 and 4, relating to the ettovsky cultural type. Dwellings 5 and 3 were simultaneous (fragments of the same vessel have been found in both of them). The new data confirm the interpretation of three dwellings as lithic-knapping site for percussion of raw material which is abundant in soil and natural sediments at the settlement area. Dwelling No 2 differs from the latter; it is determined as a seasonal habitat of hunting group in the cold season. The new data put questions about the settlement area of ettovsky cultural type in the Pyakupur river basin, on its relationship with the sites of amninsky type at Kazym river (the upper basin of Ob river), the system of natural resource use by holders of ettovsky type. Stone raw material procured at the Et-to I lithic-knapping site probably was intended for settlements located in lowland areas where it is absent. Quartzite species from Uvyr-pai can become determining raw material since it is more rare then quartz rock. The most important component of the food resources for the inhabitants of the Et-to I site was allegedly hunting for ungulates, namely reindeer. The existence of hunting for wild ungulates by means of special monumental structures presents the Vora-yakha 1 pitfall dated back about 6600 BP in the lower reaches of Pyakupur river, as well as possibly two structures studied in 2012, at the Et-to II site, 1.3 km from the Et-to I settlement.
|投稿的翻译标题||Neolithic of Nadym-Purovsky watershed: sources and perspectives|
|期刊||Вестник Томского государственного университета. История|
|州||Published - 2013|
Level of Research Output
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