Problems of the Russian rural healthcare are considered in the master’s dissertation in light of the conducted reforms and transformations for the relationship health workers and patients. The dissertation presents the modern approach of the system of rural healthcare, which identified the several subsystems: interaction of the social communalities, medical service, medical institutions, management of the healthcare, norms and sanctions. Dissertation’s author described the results of the survey conducted in the villages of Dalmatovo district of Kurgan region. The study is based on the methodology of American philosopher R. Veatch, who classified the relations of health workers and patients on the four models: engineering, paternalistic, collegial and contract. The research identified the problems and contradictions in the system of rural healthcare. The dissertation can be used as a textbook for a university’s students training on the course and specialty “Sociology”. It’s interest for graduate students, university’s teachers, academics of the field of social sciences and humanities.