The master dissertation is devoted to the comparison of idioms with the names of insects in Russian and Chinese and their translation. The purposes of the study is to identify the similarities and differences between Russian and Chinese idioms with the names of insects from the point of view of linguoculturalism; compare the equivalences when translating these idioms in two languages; generalize the ways of translation of idioms. The structure of the work consists of two chapters: theoretical and practical. The theoretical part examines the main approaches to understanding “idioms” and its features in Russian and Chinese, the concept of "insect" in Chinese and Russian phraseology, the comparative study of idioms in Russia and China and the problems of idioms’ translation. The practical part analyzes the semantics of Russian and Chinese idioms with the names of insects and equivalences in their translation. As a result of the analysis, both universal and national-cultural features of the idioms of the two languages were identified, equivalents were founded and the methods of translating idioms were also summarized. This work makes a certain contribution to the study of the problems of lexicology, linguoculturology and translation studies about phraseological units, and its results can be used in the study of these disciplines.